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5.00 PM - 6.30 PM

Hot Topics: Session 4

Examining the Association between Early Maladaptive Schemas, Compensation, and Avoidance Coping Strategies 

by Bahar Köse Karaca, Mert Aytac & Alp Karaosmanoglu


Schemas are identified as broad, pervasive themes regarding oneself and one's relationship with others, developed during childhood and elaborated throughout one's lifetime, and dysfunctional to a significant degree. Maladaptive coping with these schemas make this dysfunctional pattern continue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of early maladaptive schemas with compensation and avoidance coping mechanism in Turkish adults. Sample of the study included 1160 adults who applied to a psychotherapy center with psychological problems. They were 822 (70.9%) female and 338 (29.1%) male who were between 25 and 69 years old. Participants were assessed with Young Schema Questionnaire- Short Form 3, Young-Rygh Avoidance Inventory, and Young Compensation Inventory. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to reach the aim. Correlation results indicated that there were significant and small-to-moderate associations between maladaptive schemas and avoidance, ranging between .25 and .45. Similarly, maladaptive schemas had significant and moderate-to-large associations with compensation, ranging between .31 and .54. The results of regression analyses showed that avoidance was predicted by schemas of emotional deprivation, social isolation/alienation, approval seeking, punitiveness, and unrelenting standards. All schemas, together, accounted for 26% of the variance in the avoidance. The results also revealed that maladaptive schemas more strongly predicted by compensation, and all schemas, together, accounted for 40% of the variance in this variable. Compensation was predicted by emotional deprivation, social isolation/alienation, approval seeking, dependence/incompetence, insufficient self-control, defectiveness/shame, punitiveness, vulnerability to harm or illness, and unrelenting standards. The results indicated that there was a significant association between schemas and maladaptive coping styles. Additionally, some of the schemas predicted both avoidance and compensation while compensation was predicted by different schemas from the schemas predicting avoidance as well. The outcomes were discussed in line with the literature.

About the Presenters:

Bahar Köse Karaca

Clinical Psychologist Dr. Bahar Köse Karaca (PhD) is an ISST certified Advanced Schema Therapist, Trainer, and Supervisor. She lives in Istanbul/Turkey and organizes ISST Approved Schema Therapy Training Programs and continuing education named as When Body Speaks instead of Words: Dealing with Somatization via Schema Therapy in Turkey.  She is applying schema therapy with chronical problems in her private office for about 10 years and she lectures schema therapy and supervision courses in clinical psychology master program in Istanbul Rumeli University.  She wrote her master and doctorate theses related to schema therapy as listed below. Additionally, she worked as lecturer, researcher, thesis advisor, book writer, and article writer in many projects related to schema therapy. She is specialized in individual adult psychotherapy, in personality disorder, chronical relationship problems and somatization.

Mert Aytac

Clinical Psychologist Doctor Mert Aytaç, born in 1985, he was accepted to do Industry and Organization Psychology Master Degree Program at Maltepe University. In 2011, he completed his thesis “Examination of Relationship between Social Support Perceptions of Teachers Who Educate Mentally Retarded Students and their Job Satisfaction Levels” successfully and received his expertise. After graduation, in 2014 he was accepted to do Clinical Psychology Doctorate Program at Arel University. In 2018, he completed his thesis: “Relationship between Schema Mod and Splitting Defance Mechanism: Examining The Concept On Based On A Case” successfully and received Clinical Psychologist Doctor. Since 2015, he has taken education at supervision part of Integrative Psychotherapy given by Tahir Özakkas MD PhD. He completed first level EMDR education at the Institute of Behavioral Science. In 2015, He started to take Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Education and completed its theoretical and 80 hour supervision part. Additionally In 2019, He started to take Schema Therapy Education and completed its theoretical and 20 hour supervision part.  He completed successfully different therapy forms and peer  supervision processes in Clinical Psychology Doctoral Program. Aytaç continues to Sexual Therapy Education given by Institute of Sexual Health (CİSED).                    

Mert Aytaç continues child, teenager and adult individual psychotherapy studies from a holistic perspective.

Alp Karaosmanoglu

Psychiatrist, Founder of PsikoNET Psychiatry and Training Center Advanced Certified Schema Therapist, Supervisor, and Trainer.

Hasan Alp Karaosmanoğlu works as a psychiatrist and a psychotherapist in Istanbul. He is the author of the book Oops, Something Bad Will Happen -The Pincer of Worry: Anxiety and Conscience. Alp continues his ISST-approved training and certification programs in Turkey and abroad.

Why Schema Therapy?

Schema therapy has been extensively researched to effectively treat a wide variety of typically treatment resistant conditions, including Borderline Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Read our summary of the latest research comparing the dramatic results of schema therapy compared to other standard models of psychotherapy.

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