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SYMPOSIUM 11 | DAY 2: 10.45 AM - 12.15 PM

Questionnaires: Translation and Validation in Schema Therapy 

by Paul Kasyanik, Amir Askari, Kaia Kastepold-Tors, Inga Ignatieva, Katrina Danilson, Cristina Sterie, Mert Aytac, Hasan Alp Karaosmanoglu, and Bahar Kose Karaca

Chairs: Paul Kasyanik and Amir Askari


The symposium is designed to gather specialists involved in the translation of the Schema Therapy instruments, to exchange and discuss common issues and cultural / national specifics in the translation, adaptation and application of widely used diagnostic tools. Questionnaires are extensively used in Schema Therapy studies and practice. In cross-cultural settings, use of questionnaires is complicated by the added step of translation. The translation is usually verified using the methods of back-translation and pilot-testing to identify and quantify errors of literal translation, omission and mistranslation. Verification procedures substantially improve the internal validity of the translated questionnaires. It is important that in Schema Therapy researchers use relevant and compatible procedures to check and improve the internal validity of translated version while maintaining the original structure and methodology of the questionnaires.

Segment 1

Title: Farsi versions of YSQ and SMI

Presenter: Amir Askari

Schema Therapy questionnaires are broadly used in psycho-therapeutic practice in Iran especially after extensive growth of the number of therapists being trained in Schema Therapy. This made us to seriously reconsider the used versions of the questionnaires in the Persian language. Previously translated to Farsi versions of YSQ and SMI proved to contain some significant errors which made it necessary to perform new translation and validation. The presentation will indicate the main results of the new translation and adaptation of the above tools as well as the analysis of the cultural specificity of its application in different populations in Iran

Segment 2

Title: Translating Schema Therapy Questionnaires to Estonian Language

Presenters: Kaia Kastepõld-Tõrs, Inga Ignatieva, Katrina Danilson

This presentation emphasizes importance of the team approach to translation and review which proves to be most effective. It identifies some typical difficulties in translation of original questionnaires including maintaining the intended meaning of the questions and coordinating the semantic content and structure in questions and answers keys in both languages. There is a possibility of different meanings of questions across languages. One of the common problems arise when a questionnaire is translated too closely, focusing on the words and not the meaning of the questions. The other challenge is creating a different question than the original but still maintaining identical meaning to the source text. There are also issues regarding the translation of answer scales and use of a number of qualitative and quantitative methods including focus interviews, semantic analysis, respondent debriefing, back translation, statistical tests and some others, that are extremely important in the review process. Practical results and conclusions of the translation of YSQ and SMI to Estonian language will be also presented.

Segment 3

Title: Questionnaires Translation and Adaptation Procedures in Cross-Cultural Studies

Presenters: Paul Kasyanik and Elena Romanova

The growing popularity of the use of Schema therapy in different countries, as well as the rapidly increasing number of studies using questionnaires developed by Jeffrey Young require special attention to the purity of translation and adaptation procedures for the basic instruments. A well-translated survey instrument should have semantic equivalence across languages, conceptual equivalence across cultures, and normative equivalence to the source survey. Semantic equivalence refers to the words and sentence structure in the translated text expressing the same meaning as the source language. Conceptual equivalence is when the concept being measured is the same across groups, although wording to describe it may be different. Normative equivalence describes the ability of the translated text to address social norms that may differ across cultures. For example, some cultures are more reluctant to share personal information or discuss certain topics than other cultures. The overview will include typical procedures and norms of the questionnaires translation and adaptation used in major cross-cultural researches and adopted by international organizations such as World Health Organization and some other international bodies.

Segment 4

Title: Practical Implementation and Assessment Of Questionnaire Translation

Presenter: Cristina Sterie

When translating the questionnaire, important semantic problems need to be addressed in a similar manner to the way in which the formulation of monolingual questionnaires has taken place. Along with the formulation of the issue, special attention is required by the answers and instructions. All questions can be subject for different readings. Therefore, the provision of information and documentation on all aspects of the methodology should be standard practice in the translation. The need to research, document, systematize, accumulate and disseminate information on translation and adaptation procedures is still important today.

About the Presenters:

Paul Kasyanik

Paul Kasyanik has been treating patients, training professionals and supervising psychotherapists for more than 27 years. He also employs a wide range of experiential interventions from sensorimotor therapy to fairy-tales and life rescripting with a strong grounding in developmental psychology and consistency with the Schema Therapy model. Dr. Kasyanik is an Advanced Schema Therapist and Supervisor Trainer in Individual, Group, and Child-Adolescent Schema therapy, and directs the Schema Therapy Institute of St Petersburg in Russia.  He has presented advanced Schema Therapy training at EABCT, ISST Conferences and Summer Schools as well as in training programs in 9 countries.

Hasan Alp Karaosmanoğlu

Psychiatrist, Founder of PsikoNET Psychiatry and Training Center

Advanced Certified Schema Therapist, Supervisor, and Trainer

He works as a psychiatrist and a psychotherapist in Istanbul.

Hasan Alp Karaosmanoğlu is the writer of the book Oops, Something Bad Will Happen -The Pincer of Worry: Anxiety and Conscience. He continues his ISST-approved training and certification programs in Turkey and abroad.

Kaia Kastepõld-Tõrs

Kaia Kastepõld-Tõrs is working as lecturer of clinical psychology at Institute of Pychology, University of Tartu and as clinical psychologist, psychotherapist at Tartu Sexual Health Clinic. She is certified CBT therapist and supervisor, and practicing schema therapy under supervision. She is founder and chair of Estonian Schema therapy Association. Main focus in her work is on PTSD and complex trauma and she is working with adolescents and adults.

Inga Ignatieva

Clinical psychologist  in the Psychiatry Clinic of Tartu University Hospital and Katriito Counselling and Psychotherapy Center. I’m working with adults with depressioon, anxiety disorders, trauma, dissociative disorders, suicide attempts, personality disorders, eating disorders, professional burn-out. My working languages are Estonian and Russian. In my work I mostly use CBT, Schema Therapy, also mindfulness techniques.

Katrina Danilson

A Licensed Clinical Psychologist, currently working in Katriito Counselling and Psychotherapy Center and in Tartu Counselling and Crisis Help Center. Go-founder of the Estonian Schema Therapy Association. A special interest in childhood trauma.

Cristina Sterie

Cristina Sterie is an Advanced Schema Therapist, trainer and supervisor and a senior CBT trained psychotherapist, trainer and supervisor. She works in private practice in her home town – Bucharest and is also very much involved in organizing schema trainings in Romania and bringing this school of psychotherapy in the attention of the Romanian public.

She has experience in working with oncologic patients and also with children and adolescents placed in the social services.

Mert Aytaç

Clinical Psychologist Doctor Mert Aytaç, born in 1985, graduated from Department of Psychological Counseling and Guidance, Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkısh Republic of Northern Cyprus. After graduation, in 2008, he was accepted to do Industry and Organization Psychology Master Degree Program at Maltepe University. In 2011, he completed his thesis “Examination of Relationship between Social Support Perceptions of Teachers Who Educate Mentally Retarded Students and their Job Satisfaction Levels” successfully and received his expertise. After graduation, in 2014 he was accepted to do Clinical Psychology Doctorate Program at Arel University. In 2018, he completed his thesis: “Relationship between Schema Mod and Splitting Defance Mechanism: Examining The Concept On Based On A Case” successfully and received Clinical Psychologist Doctor. Since 2015, he has taken education at supervision part of Integrative Psychotherapy given by Tahir Özakkas MD PhD. He completed first level EMDR education at the Institute of Behavioral Science. In 2015, He started to take Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Education and completed its theoretical and 80 hour supervision part. He completed successfully different therapy forms and peer  supervision processes in Clinical Psychology Doctoral Program. Aytaç continues to Sexual Therapy Education given by Institute of Sexual Health (CİSED).                    

Mert Aytaç continues child, teenager and adult individual psychotherapy studies from a holistic perspective.

Why Schema Therapy?

Schema therapy has been extensively researched to effectively treat a wide variety of typically treatment resistant conditions, including Borderline Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Read our summary of the latest research comparing the dramatic results of schema therapy compared to other standard models of psychotherapy.

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